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不干膠的印刷方式,你知道嗎?

來源:http://tjanamera.com/ 日期:2019-12-05 發布人:admin   一個小小的標簽確有著大學問,不僅是產品防偽重要的一環,同時也是體現產品質量,公司形象和品牌的的重要部分,說起標簽,就不得不提起不干膠標簽印刷,本文分享不干膠印刷的相關知識,供朋友們參考:
  A small label does have a university question, which is not only an important part of product anti-counterfeiting, but also an important part of product quality, company image and brand. Speaking of label, we have to mention label printing. This article shares the relevant knowledge of label printing for friends to refer to:
不干膠防偽標簽印刷制作
  注意事項
  Matters needing attention
  1、對于圓柱體瓶,尤其是直徑小于30MM,要謹慎選擇材料。
  1. For the cylinder bottle, especially the diameter less than 30mm, the material should be carefully selected.
  2、如果標簽尺寸過大或過小,都應注意進行實際試驗。
  2. If the label size is too large or too small, the actual test shall be carried out.
  3、如果被貼物是不規則表面甚至球面時,對于標簽材料種類、厚度與粘膠劑都有特定考慮。
  3. If the stickers are irregular surfaces or even spherical surfaces, there are specific considerations for the type, thickness and adhesive of the label materials.
  4、某些粗糙的表面如瓦楞紙箱會影響貼標,瓦楞紙箱表面的光油亦會產生影響。
  4. Some rough surfaces, such as corrugated boxes, will affect labeling, and the varnish on the surface of corrugated boxes will also affect labeling.
  5、自動貼標機標簽,必要的情況下可以進行貼標試驗。
  5. Label of automatic labeling machine, and labeling test can be conducted if necessary.
  6、即使標簽是在常溫下貼標,要注意出口運輸途中和使用中是否經歷高溫。
  6. Even if the label is pasted under normal temperature, pay attention to whether it experiences high temperature during export transportation and use.
  7、多水或多油環境等都會影響粘膠劑的特性,應注意標簽貼標的環境及溫度。
  7. The environment with more water or oil will affect the properties of the adhesive. Pay attention to the environment and temperature of the label.
  8、軟PVC表面有時會有增塑劑滲出,要特別注意選擇合適的粘膠劑。
  8. Plasticizers sometimes exude from the soft PVC surface. Pay special attention to the selection of appropriate adhesives.
  印刷流程
  Printing process
  1、大部分采用一樣的流程。不干膠印刷的工序主要是在標簽機上一次性進行也就是說一臺機器可以完成標簽印刷的多個不同流程。
  1. Most of them use the same process. The process of self-adhesive printing is mainly carried out on the label machine at one time, that is to say, one machine can complete multiple different processes of label printing.
  2、不干膠加工是通過聯機方式進行的,因而其質量的控制是一個綜合性的問題,需要從材料的選擇、設備的配置和調控和工藝路線的制定等方面進行考慮以及實施,會根據標簽產品在用戶方面的應用情況,而進行提高標簽的質量。
  2. The processing of self-adhesive is carried out online, so its quality control is a comprehensive problem, which needs to be considered and implemented from the aspects of material selection, equipment configuration and control, and the formulation of process route. The quality of label will be improved according to the application of label products in users.
  3、在選擇原材料時,會選擇高質量以及各項理化指標均合格的不干膠材料,不會因為不及格的材料價格低廉,而采用。劣質的原材料本身質量不穩定,而且更有機會導致設備無法正常加工,從而浪費資源人力,還會對客戶造成損失,失去客戶。因此在原材料的選取方面,的選材有著嚴格的標準。各位可以放心購買及下單。
  3. When selecting raw materials, we will select high-quality and all physical and chemical indexes of the self-adhesive materials, which will not be used because of the low price of the failed materials. The quality of poor raw materials is not stable, and there is more chance that the equipment can not be processed normally, which wastes resources and manpower, and also causes losses to customers and loses customers. Therefore, in the selection of raw materials, the selection of materials has strict standards. You can buy and place orders at ease.
  凸印
  Convex printing
  采用凸印印刷不干膠標簽,印版為感光樹脂凸版,印刷標簽具有墨色飽滿的優點,但現在凸版印刷設備檔次差別較大,有的仍在使用圓壓平凸印機,有的使用普通輪轉凸印機,有的已采用了的斜背式、衛星式或機組式不干膠標簽印刷機,所以在轉型時不能一概而論。以凸印為主的不干膠印刷機,都具備印刷薄膜標簽的能力,但需要與供應商聯系,更換一些相關部件,如增加伺服電機控制的張力控制系統、增設薄膜表面處理單元,一些的機器還可增加精確套準系統。
  The self-adhesive label is used for convex printing. The printing plate is light-sensitive resin convex plate. The printing label has the advantage of full ink color. However, the level of convex printing equipment is quite different now. Some of them are still using the round embossing machine, some of them are using the ordinary rotary embossing machine, some of them have used the professional inclined back, satellite or unit type self-adhesive label printing machine, so they can not be unified in the transformation On the other hand. The professional self-adhesive printing machine mainly for embossing has the ability to print film labels, but it needs to contact with suppliers and replace some relevant parts, such as adding the tension control system controlled by servo motor, adding the film surface treatment unit, and adding the accurate registration system for some high-end machines.
  膠印
  Offset printing
  膠印是中國標簽印刷廠印刷紙質不干膠的主要方式。膠印的特點是圖文精細,層次豐富,適于大批量印刷,且印刷設備可一機多用,適合中國標簽市場的特點。但單張紙膠印不適于印刷表面沒有吸收性的薄膜,因為薄膜標簽多為卷到卷印刷,需要揮發性干燥油墨。膠印可印制較厚的塑料材料,如模內標簽、標簽吊牌,但必須給機器加裝uv固化裝置,需要一筆不小的費用。
  Offset printing is the main way of printing paper adhesive in China label printing factory. Offset printing is characterized by fine graphics and text, rich layers, suitable for large-scale printing, and printing equipment can be multi-purpose, suitable for the characteristics of the Chinese label market. However, sheet fed offset printing is not suitable for non absorbent film on the printing surface, because the film label is mostly roll to roll printing, which requires volatile dry ink. Offset printing can print thick plastic materials, such as in mold label and tag tag tag, but the machine must be equipped with UV curing device, which will cost a lot of money.
  柔印
  flexography
  目前柔性版印刷品的質量不亞于膠印,甚至有其獨特的地方。這種印刷工藝的優點是機器結構簡單,成本低,印刷質量可與膠印、凹印相媲美,且具有比膠印產品墨層厚實的優點,柔印采用水性油墨和uv油墨,不污染環境。但由于柔性版的彈性較大,階調再現性與凹版和普通凸版不同,柔性版印刷的高光到中間調的網點增大較大,印刷反差小,高光層次容易出現斷層,在印刷精細圖文標簽時,為了彌補層次缺陷,高光部分可采用調頻網點,暗調或中間調用調幅加網以提高質量。沒有柔印機的標簽印刷廠可引進專用于不干膠標簽印刷的層疊式窄幅柔性版印刷機,此印刷機適于薄膜標簽印刷。由于柔性版印刷機都采用圓壓圓模切,模切輥價格高,制作周期長,僅適用于長版活,對于國內不干膠標簽短版活需求量大的特點不適應。但它是一種容易轉型的標簽印刷設備,可與薄膜分切、縫合、封口工序聯機工作
  At present, the quality of flexographic printing is not inferior to offset printing, and even has its unique place. This printing process has the advantages of simple machine structure, low cost, printing quality comparable to offset printing and gravure printing, and has the advantages of thicker ink layer than offset products. Water-based ink and UV ink are used in flexographic printing, which does not pollute the environment. However, due to the flexibility of the flexographic plate, the step reproducibility is different from that of the gravure plate and the ordinary relief plate. The dot from the highlight to the middle tone of the flexographic plate increases greatly, the printing contrast is small, and the highlight level is prone to faults. When printing fine graphic labels, in order to make up for the defects of the level, the highlight part can adopt the frequency modulation dot, and the amplitude modulation plus net can be used in the dark or in the middle to improve the quality. The label printing factory without flexographic printing machine can introduce the laminated narrow flexographic printing machine, which is suitable for film label printing. Because the flexographic printing press adopts circular die-cutting, the die-cutting roller has high price and long production cycle, and it is only suitable for long version work, which is not suitable for the characteristics of large demand for short version work of self-adhesive label in China. However, it is an easy to transform label printing equipment, which can work online with film cutting, sewing and sealing processes
  由于標簽印刷技術的不斷完善,老式平壓平模切機不能連續給紙的問題已經得到了解決,在速度、自動套準、印后聯機工作等功能上面已經可以與成熟的圓壓圓模切機相提并論,由于平壓平模切機的模切刀容易制作、周期短、價格低,所以在短線活上面可以大大降低生產成本。
  Due to the continuous improvement of label printing technology, the problem that the old flat die-cutting machine can't continuously feed paper has been solved. It can be compared with the mature round die-cutting machine in terms of speed, automatic registration, online work after printing and other functions. Because the die-cutting knife of the flat die-cutting machine is easy to make, short cycle and low price, it can be greatly reduced in the short line work Low production cost.
  凹印
  Gravure printing
  凹版印刷采用短墨路輸墨系統供墨,卷筒料印刷,自動化程度很高,使用溶劑型油墨,墨層干燥迅速,是薄膜類印刷的。一般凹版印刷機速度較高,許多凹版印刷機的后端還配置滾筒模切裝置,可進行模切、壓痕,適于各種標簽的印刷。但由于凹版制版周期長、制版費用昂貴,只適合于大批量的標簽生產。
  Gravure printing adopts short ink path ink delivery system for ink supply, web printing, high degree of automation, using solvent based ink, rapid drying of ink layer, which is the first choice for film printing. Generally, the speed of intaglio printing machine is high, and the back end of many intaglio printing machines is also equipped with roller die-cutting device, which can be used for die-cutting and indentation, and is suitable for the printing of various labels. However, due to the long period of intaglio plate making and the high cost of plate making, it is only suitable for large-scale label production.
  涂膠
  Gluing
  不干膠標簽的膠水分為水膠和熱熔膠,由于熱熔膠設備具有體積小價格便宜等優點以及熱熔膠在作業過程中具有環保、集約、反復粘合、可循環利用以及便于操作等優點,使之在標簽領域當中越來越多的等到廣泛應用。熱熔膠設備的工藝是放卷-涂布-冷卻-復合-收卷等幾個部分組成。
  The glue of self-adhesive label is divided into water glue and hot-melt glue. Because the hot-melt glue equipment has the advantages of small size, low price, etc. and the hot-melt glue has the advantages of environmental protection, intensive, repeated bonding, recyclable and easy operation in the operation process, it is more and more widely used in the field of label. The process of hot melt adhesive equipment is composed of unwinding coating cooling compound rewinding and other parts.
  印刷燙金
  Printing bronzing
  燙印作為一種重要的金屬效果表面整飾方法,是增強商標、紙盒、標簽等產品視覺效果的有效途徑,應用廣泛。熱燙印和冷燙印這兩種主要的燙印方式各有優勢與不足,在實際應用中,應根據具體情況來選擇合適的燙印方式,主要根據成本和質量方面考慮。熱燙印技術是指利用專用的金屬燙印版通過加熱、加壓的方式將燙印箔轉移到承印材料表面。
  As an important method of metal effect surface finishing, hot stamping is an effective way to enhance the visual effect of trademarks, cartons, labels and other products, which is widely used. Hot stamping and cold stamping have their own advantages and disadvantages. In practical application, we should choose the appropriate hot stamping method according to the specific situation, mainly considering the cost and quality. Hot stamping technology refers to the use of a special metal hot plate by heating, pressing the way to transfer the hot stamping foil to the substrate surface.
  熱燙印技術的優點主要包括以下幾點,質量好,精度高,燙印圖像邊緣清晰、銳利。表面光澤度高,燙印圖案明亮、平滑。燙印箔的選擇范圍廣,如不同顏色的燙印箔,不同光澤效果的燙印箔,以及適用于不同基材的燙印箔。方式制成立體燙印版,使燙印加工成的圖文具有明顯的立體層次,在印刷品表面形成浮雕效果,并產生強烈的視覺沖擊效果。立體燙印能夠使包裝具有一種獨特的觸感。正是由于熱燙印工藝具有上述諸多優點,受到了廣大用戶和消費者的青睞,應用十分廣泛。但是,熱燙印工藝需要采用特殊的設備,需要加熱裝置,需要制作燙印版,因此,獲得高質量燙印效果的同時也意味著要付出更高的成本代價。
  The advantages of hot stamping technology mainly include the following points: good quality, high precision, clear and sharp edge of the hot stamping image. The surface gloss is high, and the hot stamping pattern is bright and smooth. Hot stamping foil has a wide range of choices, such as different colors of hot stamping foil, different gloss effect of hot stamping foil, and suitable for different substrate hot stamping foil. The method is to make a three-dimensional hot stamping plate, so that the image and text processed by hot stamping have an obvious three-dimensional level, forming a relief effect on the surface of the printed matter, and producing a strong visual impact effect. Three dimensional hot stamping can make the package have a unique touch. Because of the above advantages, the hot stamping process is favored by the majority of users and consumers, and is widely used. However, the hot stamping process needs to use special equipment, heating device, and make a hot stamping plate. Therefore, obtaining high-quality hot stamping effect also means paying a higher cost.
  冷燙印技術無須專門的燙印設備,而且,這些設備的價格通常還比較昂貴。無須制作金屬燙印版,可以使用普通的柔性版,不但制版速度快,周期短,還可降低燙印版的制作成本。燙印速度快,可達450fpm。無須加熱裝置,并能節省能源。采用一塊感光樹脂版即可同時完成網目調圖像和實地色塊的燙印,即可以將要燙印的網目調圖像和實地色塊制在同一塊燙印版上。當然,跟網目調和實地色塊制在同一塊印版上印刷一樣,兩者的燙印效果和質量可能都會有一定的損失。燙印基材的適用范圍廣,在熱敏材料、塑料薄膜、模內標簽上也能進行燙印。總之,熱燙和冷燙的區別和優缺點都是比較明顯的。實際生產中,選擇熱燙印技術還是冷燙印技術,應當根據具體情況而定。采用熱燙印技術能夠達到的燙印質量和燙印效果,但是成本要更高一些。冷燙印的質量雖然也不錯,但比熱燙印要遜色一些,不過成本更低一些。
  Cold stamping technology does not need special hot stamping equipment, and the price of these equipment is usually more expensive. No need to make metal hot plate, you can use ordinary flexible plate, not only the plate making speed, short cycle, but also reduce the production cost of hot plate. Hot stamping speed, up to 450 FPM. No heating device is needed, and energy can be saved. A photosensitive resin plate can be used to complete the hot stamping of halftone image and field color block at the same time, that is to say, the halftone image to be hot stamped and field color block can be made on the same hot stamping plate. Of course, with mesh and field color block system printed on the same plate, the hot stamping effect and quality of both may have a certain loss. The application range of the stamping base material is wide, and it can also be used on the heat sensitive material, plastic film and the label inside the mold. In a word, the difference, advantages and disadvantages between hot and cold ironing are obvious. In actual production, the choice of hot stamping technology or cold stamping technology should be determined according to the specific situation. Using hot stamping technology can achieve the best hot stamping quality and effect, but the cost is higher. Although the quality of cold stamping is good, it is inferior to hot stamping, but the cost is lower.
  后期工藝編輯
  Post process editing
  為了保護不干膠標簽的印刷圖紋和提升標簽的品質,很多不干膠標簽印刷后都選擇了覆膜、上光和燙金等表面整飾處理。燙金根據不干膠標簽的加工方式,其燙金方法分為單張紙燙金和卷筒紙燙金。單張紙燙金向傳統的燙金工藝相同,在專用燙金機上加工。卷筒紙燙金是在標簽聯動機上完成的,是應用更廣泛的一種加工方式。
  In order to protect the print pattern and improve the quality of labels, many labels have chosen to be coated, polished and gilded after printing. According to the processing method of self-adhesive label, the stamping method can be divided into sheet stamping and web stamping. The stamping process of single sheet paper is the same as the traditional stamping process, which is processed on a special stamping machine. Web stamping is completed on the label linkage machine, which is the most widely used processing method.
  卷筒材料燙金有以下幾種方式:
  There are several ways to bronze drum materials:
  ①標簽機上平壓平燙金
  ① flat pressing and gilding on the label machine
  ②多工位平壓平燙金
  ② multi station flat pressing and stamping
  ③加工機上平壓平燙金
  ③ flat pressing and gilding on the processing machine
  ④輪轉機上圓壓圓燙金
  (4) round stamping on the rotary machine
  ⑤輪轉機上冷燙金這是一種燙金新工藝,不再使用加熱后的金屬印版,而是利用印刷粘合劑的方法,使金屬箔轉移,實現燙金。
  ⑤ cold stamping on the rotary machine is a new stamping process. Instead of using the heated metal plate, it uses the printing adhesive to transfer the metal foil and realize the stamping.
  工藝流程是:在印品需要燙金的位置先印上UV壓敏型粘合劑,經UV干燥裝置使粘合劑干燥,而后使用特種金屬箔同壓敏膠復合,再剝離金屬箔,于是金屬箔上需要轉印的部分就轉印到了印刷品表面,實現冷燙金。冷燙金工藝成本低,節省能源,生產效率高,可利用現有的設備部件,不需增加附加裝置,是一種很有發展前途的新工藝。
  The technological process is as follows: first, the UV pressure-sensitive adhesive is printed at the position where the stamping is needed, and then the adhesive is dried by the UV drying device, and then the special metal foil is used to compound with the pressure-sensitive adhesive, and then the metal foil is stripped, so the part of the metal foil that needs to be transferred is transferred to the surface of the printing to realize the cold stamping. The cold stamping process has the advantages of low cost, energy saving and high production efficiency. It can make use of the existing equipment parts without additional devices. It is a new process with a very promising future.
  上光工藝主要應用于鏡面銅版紙、銅版紙類標簽的表面涂布,目的是增加其表面的光澤度,并達到防污、防潮濕、保護圖紋的作用。根據加工方式,不干膠標簽材料的上光分為單張紙上光和卷筒紙上光,其中卷筒紙上光是不干膠標簽印刷工藝中更普遍采用的方法。卷筒紙不干膠標簽的上光是在輪轉型標簽機上進行的。普遍采用UV上光工藝,即:在印刷后的圖紋表面均勻地涂布一層UV上光油。對于水基墨柔印標簽,上光是必不可少的一道工序。
  The polishing process is mainly applied to the surface coating of mirror copperplate paper and copperplate paper labels, so as to increase the glossiness of the surface, and achieve the functions of antifouling, moisture resistance and pattern protection. According to the processing method, the glazing of the label material can be divided into single sheet glazing and web glazing, among which web glazing is the most commonly used method in the label printing process. The calendering of Web self-adhesive label is carried out on the round transformation label machine. UV glazing technology is widely used, that is: evenly coating a layer of UV varnish on the surface of the pattern after printing. For water-based ink flexo label, glazing is an essential process.
  覆膜有底紙復合膜復合--在標簽機上進行,使用有底紙的專用復合膜,在復合裝置的作用下覆膜。這是一種傳統的覆膜方式。已被使用無底紙復合膜的工藝所代替。無底紙復合膜復合--在標簽機上進行,覆膜原理同有底紙復合膜復合工藝基本相像。無底紙膜靠自身材料的表面光滑度(表面張力)復卷后代替底紙,粘合劑同其表面粘合后,還可剝離,且不殘留膠跡。無底紙膜所用的材料為低表面張力的BOPP薄膜。無底紙膜覆膜成本低,是目前使用更廣泛的一種覆膜材料。
  Laminating with the backing paper composite film -- it is carried out on the label machine, using the special composite film of the backing paper, and laminating under the function of the composite device. This is a traditional way of film covering. It has been replaced by the technology of composite film with non backing paper. Bottomless paper composite film lamination -- it is carried out on the label machine, and the lamination principle is basically similar to the composite process of bottomless paper composite film. After rewinding by the surface smoothness (surface tension) of its own material, the non backing paper film replaces the backing paper. After the adhesive adheres to its surface, it can also be peeled off without any adhesive trace. The material used for bottomless paper film is BOPP film with low surface tension. The bottomless paper film is the most widely used coating material because of its low cost.
  印刷-絲印防偽
  Printing silk screen security
  1、防偽標簽絲印防偽主要是指為涂層部分和局部進行防偽。
  1. Anti counterfeiting label screen printing mainly refers to anti-counterfeiting for coating part and part.
  2、建議涂層部分盡量不要上復膜,因為復膜成本高而且不好切磨,上光油是更好的辦法。
  2. It is suggested that the coating part should not be coated as much as possible, because the cost of lamination is high and it is not easy to cut and grind, and polishing oil is the best way.
  3、在制作不干膠標簽的時候盡量不要整體上光油,部分上就可以了。
  3. Try not to polish the label as a whole when making self-adhesive label, just partially.
  4、絲印網版目數的粗細程度影響這涂層的厚度,而稀釋劑的濃淡程度影響著涂層的美觀。
  4. The thickness of the coating is affected by the thickness of the screen mesh, while the thickness of the thinner affects the beauty of the coating.
  5、不干膠標簽的絲印防偽技術在滴水防偽上就使用水性的網板,其他的一般都是使用油性。
  5. The silk screen anti-counterfeiting technology of self-adhesive label uses the water-based screen board on the drip anti-counterfeiting, and the others are generally oily.
  6、采用的絲印的網板目數一般為250-350目,理論來說絲印網板的目數越大,效果就越濃,而且涂層就越厚。
  6. The mesh number of screen used is generally 250-350 mesh. Theoretically, the larger the mesh number of screen, the stronger the effect and the thicker the coating.
  7、在實際的使用當中發現,油墨越濃絲印的圖案就越細致,如果稀釋不夠,也可能會起殼。
  7. In actual use, it is found that the thicker the ink is, the more detailed the pattern will be. If the dilution is not enough, it may also shell.
  8、絲印與排版和設計有關,排版空間越大絲印時位置越好調整;絲印同時也與天氣有關,太潮濕或溫度太高都會影響絲印的效果。一般溫度高時要加慢干水或者特慢的783,溫度低時要加快干水。
  8. Screen printing is related to typesetting and design. The larger the typesetting space, the better the position of screen printing can be adjusted. Screen printing is also related to weather. Too wet or too high temperature will affect the effect of screen printing. Generally, when the temperature is high, add slow dry water or very slow 783, and when the temperature is low, speed up the dry water.
  9、絲印要注意客戶的單個標的要求及打碼有一定的關系,如果涂層上印字的涂層薄點也沒有關系;如果涂層上不印字的則涂層要厚點;另外就是打碼時字體盡量清晰筆畫卻要盡量細點。
  9. For silk screen printing, it is necessary to pay attention to the requirements of the individual mark of the customer and the printing code. If the coating on the coating is thin, there is no relationship. If the coating is not printed, the coating should be thick. In addition, the font should be as clear as possible but as fine as possible.
  10、絲印與標簽擺放的順序有關系:有序列號的和無序列號的要注意區分擺放。
  10. Silk screen printing is related to the order in which labels are placed: those with and without serial numbers should be placed separately.
  11、絲印要注意材料的問題,不同材料有不同油墨和做法。
  11. Pay attention to the material problems in silk screen printing. Different materials have different inks and methods.
  12、絲印要注意后道加工是否要復膜,如果絲印的部分容易脫落或抹掉就要復膜。
  12. Pay attention to whether the film is to be covered during the subsequent processing of silk screen. If the part of silk screen is easy to fall off or erase, the film shall be covered.
  13、絲印要注意是否要套色,一般套色的膠印比較好,而常常是膠印不能印的絲印的卻可以印,所以,常常說絲印無所不能。
  13. In screen printing, attention should be paid to whether or not to overprint. Generally, overprinting is better than overprinting, but the overprinting which cannot be printed can be printed. Therefore, it is often said that screen printing is omnipotent.
  14、不干膠標簽的絲印技術要對油墨的性能要了解,對網板,位置,調板,修板,洗板都要了解。
  14. The silk screen printing technology of self-adhesive label needs to know about the performance of the ink, as well as the screen, location, adjustment, repair and cleaning.
  15、絲印要注意表面不要糊掉,不要起泡;
  15. Pay attention to the surface of silk screen not to be pasted off or blistered;
  16、值得提醒的是做滴水防偽時一般建議一次性做完,因為這種網版常常中間稍微有停頓就可能不能夠用了。
  16. It is worth mentioning that it is generally recommended to finish the anti-counterfeiting at one time, because this kind of screen version may not be enough if there is a slight pause in the middle.
  17、絲印要注意按照生產單制作,如果溫變防偽要注意是溫變消失,還是溫變變色;要注意溫變效果是可逆的還是不可逆的。
  17. The silk screen printing shall be made according to the production list. If the temperature change is anti-counterfeiting, it is necessary to pay attention to whether the temperature change disappears or changes color; whether the temperature change effect is reversible or irreversible.
  18、絲印表面采用銀粉性能的衡量標準是:用指甲能刮開,用指肚抹不掉。
  18. The performance standard of silver powder used for silk screen surface is: it can be scratched with fingernail, and can't be wiped off with finger belly.

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